National Research Council
A major reorganization effective July 1, 2015 changed the branding of the National Academy of Sciences and its associated entities -- the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) and the National Research Council (NRC). Currently the organization is referred to as "The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine." Reports issued under those auspices henceforth will carry that nomenclature instead of NRC as they have since 1916.
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed a law that created the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). In 1916, the NAS established the National Research Council (NRC) as its “operating arm” to conduct studies requested by and paid for by the federal government or other sponsors. The NAS created the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1970.
Over time, the branding was changed and the organizations were referred to collectively as The National Academies, comprised of those four entities: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
Effective July 2015, the Institute of Medicine became the National Academy of Medicine and the entities are now referred to as the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine. The National Research Council still exists as an internal entity but its name no longer is used for external purposes, including on reports.
The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine are non-profit organizations that are not part of the U.S. Government. However, because the original institution, the NAS, was created by law, some operations are subject to certain conditions. For example, they cannot compete for federal contracts (so all contracts must be sole-sourced) and studies are subject to Section 15 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA).
Reports are written by committees of expert volunteers from academia, industry, the government, and other organizations. Most reports are managed by one of dozens of “Boards” into which the organization is administratively divided. Most reports about the space program are issued by the Space Studies Board (SSB) or the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). Other Boards also may be involved in space-related studies, including the Board on Physics and Astronomy, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, the Ocean Studies Board, and the Air Force Studies Board.
A "Board" is composed of the members of the Board (which provides strategic direction for a Board's activities), a varying number of ad hoc study committees that are created specifically to write a report on a specific topic and terminate once the study is complete, and the staff. In some cases, such as the SSB, there also may be standing committees on a particular topic or discipline. SSB has five standing commitees, while ASEB has none. The SSB and ASEB sometimes post presentations made at meetings of the Boards and standing committees on their websites. The current SSB standing committees are:
What is a Decadal Survey?
Decadal Surveys are highly valued by NASA and other agencies because they represent a consensus of the researchers in a particular discipline (the "community") as to what are the most important areas of research and the order in which specific missions should be built and, for NASA, launched. The priorities identified in a Decadal Survey are usually strictly followed, budgets permitting. Congress also finds these studies useful. In the 2008 NASA Authorization Act (P.L. 110-422), Congress directed NASA to request such studies on a periodic basis and to require that they include independent cost estimates of recommended missions and "trip-wires" - conditions under which the priority given to a mission might be reexamined. As noted below, the 2005 NASA Authorization Act requires NASA to request "performance assessments" of how each Decadal Survey is being implemented half-way through that particular decade.
While not a space-related study, ASEB performed a Decadal Survey for civil aeronautics research that is available here. BPA has undertaken Decadal Surveys for other disciplines under its purview that are available on its website.
SSB reports can be obtained for free as long as supplies last by contacting the Board at or by downloading a free PDF version from the National Academies Press website.
ASEB reports can be obtained for free while supplies last by contacting the Board at email@example.com or by downloading a free PDF version from the National Academies Press website (follow link below).
In addition to the Decadal Surveys, other reports have become classics that are widely cited. Some that appear to be of most interest to the space community that are not listed above are shown here.
Beyond Fortress America: National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World (2009, Policy and Global Affairs)
NASA's Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (2007, SSB and BPA)
Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (2007, Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy)
The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007, SSB)
U.S.-European Collaboration in Space Science (1998, SSB)
The Human Exploration of Space (1997, SSB)
Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Priorities (the Stever report) (1988, SSB)