Military/National Security Space Activities
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The 1958 National Aeronautics and Space Act specified that U.S. military space activities would be conducted by the Department of Defense (DOD), while creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to conduct the nation's civil space program.
Today, the term "national security space" is often used to encompass the space activities of the intelligence community as well as DOD. National security space programs include launch vehicles and satellite systems for reconnaissance, early warning of missile launches and nuclear detonations, navigation, communications, and weather. Many of these systems have counterparts in the civil and commercial sectors; the line between national security and civil space systems can be quite blurry. For example, the Global Positioning System (GPS) of navigation satellites is a DOD system, but it enables pervasive civil and commercial applications from precision farming to cell phones to automobile navigation systems.
Although NASA conducts a much more visible space program, DOD's space program is larger. There is no easy way to track national security space funding since "space" is not a specific item in DOD's budget. A portion of these activities are classified ("black") programs for which budgetary information is not available on an unclassified basis. The rest of the funding is for unclassified ("white") programs, but is spread throughout the DOD budget in research and development (R&D), operations and management (O&M), and procurement accounts for the three services and defense-wide activities. The majority of funding is in the Air Force accounts, but is difficult to identify except for major programs. According to the fiscal year (FY) 2011 edition of the annual Aeronautics and Space Report of the President DOD's FY2011 space budget was $27.3 billion, which is thought to represent all spending (classified and unclassified) for national security space activities (see Appendix D-1). By comparison, NASA's total FY2010 budget was $18.4 billion (including about $500 million for aeronautics).
DOD's unclassified space systems include the following programs, some of which are operational and others still in development or earlier phases:
DOD also has programs that address the needs for space situational awareness, space control, and operationally responsive space.
U.S. space policy, including national security space policy, was most recently enunciated by President Barack Obama in his National Space Policy, released on June 28, 2010. The Obama policy superseded the policy issued in 2006 by President George W. Bush.
When the Obama White House released its overarching national space policy in June 2010, it stated that it would release additional specific space policies on other topics as previous Presidents have done. Other space policies that were promulated during President George W. Bush's administration related to national security space were:
On November 21, 2013, President Obama released an update of the Space Transportation Policy. The updated policy and an associated fact sheet are at the following links:
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) publishes a number of reports about national security space programs and routinely testifies to congressional committees about related issues. For a list of its most recent reports and testimony, look on the left menu of our home page under "Government Accountability Office."