Registration for NASA's Cube Quest (CQ) Challenge opens on December 2, 2014. Prizes are offered for putting a cubesat into stable lunar orbit or for communicating the most amount of data in certain time frames or for the longest period of time or from the greatest distance in cis-lunar or trans-lunar space.
The CQ Challenge is part of NASA's Centennial Challenges program and has a total prize purse of $5 million.
Prizes will be awarded for:
The opening of registration for this challenge is announced in the November 24, 2014 Federal Register (distributed electronically on November 22), which directs interested individuals to a website that, as of the time of publication of this article (8:30 am November 22), is not working [http://www.nasa.gov/cubequest]. Presumably it will be working by the time registration opens on December 2. Until then, the main website for the Centennial Challenges program may be helpful, though this particular competition does not seem to be posted there yet, either.
The competition ends one year after the "NASA-provided launch opportunity is launched for the challenge."
The House Appropriations Committee announced today that Rep. John Culberson (R-TX) will succeed Rep. Frank Wolf (R-VA) as chair of the Commerce-Justice-Science (CJS) subcommittee in the 114th Congress. Wolf is retiring.
Culberson said in a press statement that it is a "real privilege" to succeed Wolf and it will be "a source of great joy for me to help lift up NASA and the NSF to ensure that America will always lead the world in space exploration and scientific discoveries."
Culberson's district includes Houston, home to NASA's Johnson Space Center. He is a member of the CJS subcommittee now and an ardent advocate for robotic planetary exploration, particularly a mission to Jupiter's moon Europa. Culberson and Rep. Adam Schiff (D-CA, whose district includes the Jet Propulsion Lab) are the key proponents for adding money for a Europa mission to NASA's budget even though the agency did not have plans to pursue such a mission at the current time.
The most recent National Research Council (NRC) planetary science Decadal Survey identified Europa as the second priority for a flagship-class mission (behind returning a sample of Mars to Earth), but Congress added $75 million in FY2013 (about $69 million after required reductions due to across-the-board cuts that year) and $80 million in FY2014 for NASA to conduct studies and begin preliminary work on a Europa mission. In response, the Obama Administration requested $15 million for Europa in its FY2015 budget request, but it was a one-time request (there is nothing in the projected budget for the next four years). Congress is still working on the FY2015 appropriations bills, but the House added $85 million in the version of the CJS bill it passed in May. The Senate Appropriations Committee did not add money for the mission, but expressed support and directed NASA to design it to be launched on the Space Launch System. At the time of the Decadal Survey, the mission was estimated to cost $4.7 billion. JPL subsequently developed a downscaled concept -- Europa Clipper -- with an approximately $2 billion pricetag.
Note: This article was updated on November 20 at 5:20 pm ET with the quote from Culberson reacting to being named chairman.
Rep. John Culberson (R-TX). Photo Credit: Rep. Culberson's website.
Speculation that Culberson would succeed Wolf has been rampant for the past year. In an interview with the Houston Chronicle's Eric Berger in December 2013, Culberson laid out his views on NASA:
Wolf remains chair of the subcommittee until the end of the 113th Congress. Culberson will take over in the 114th Congress, which convenes on January 3, 2015.
The CJS subcommittee funds NASA, NSF, the Department of Commerce (including NOAA), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the Department of Justice, and a number of smaller "related agencies."
In an investors call this afternoon, ATK confirmed that its Board of Directors continues to support its merger with Orbital Sciences Corporation despite the October 28 Antares launch failure. The shareholder vote has been postponed to January 27, 2015, but the ATK Board recommends that the merger go forward.
ATK has concluded that risks associated with Orbital's recovery plan are "manageable," and successful execution is "likely."
"ATK Board of Directors continues to support the merits of the transaction and recommends shareholders vote to approve issuance of ATK shares to Orbital shareholders in connection with the merger," the company said in its presentation.
The two companies announced a "merger of equals" in April, but the explosion of Orbital's Antares rocket on October 28 at Wallops Island, VA is a complicating event. Antares was launching a Cygnus spacecraft filled with cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) as part of Orbital's Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract with NASA.
Just one week after the accident, Orbital revealed its recovery plan to fulfill that contract, which requires Orbital to launch 20 tons of cargo to the ISS by the end of 2016. To do that, Orbital will consolidate the remaining tonnage of cargo into four rather than five more launches, made possible by already planned upgrades to Cygnus and Antares. The upgraded Cygnus was already scheduled to be introduced on the next launch, and Orbital will accelerate bringing a new version of Antares on line with a different rocket engine. Until that new rocket is ready, expected in 2016, Orbital will use other companies' rockets to launch Cygnus. Those details are still pending.
What new engine will be used for Antares is a matter of considerable speculation. Neither Orbital nor ATK has said what it is. Antares has been using AJ26 engines, which are Russian NK-33 engines built more than 40 years ago, purchased and refurbished by Aerojet Rocketdyne. During an investors call on November 5, Orbital Chairman, President and CEO David Thompson referred to ongoing technical and supply problems with the AJ26.
Though there was no hard news today during the ATK investors call about what new engine has been selected, the presentation did note Orbital's plan to "accelerate the introduction of a new Antares propulsion system upgrade in 2016" before summarizing its assessment of Orbital's plan as being reasonable. The company did add, however, that it would continue to "work closely with Orbital to monitor progress on the recovery and go-forward plan."
NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) has an opening for a public policy expert to join its policy team. Applications are due by November 24, 2014.
The posting is on the USA Jobs website and is for a GS12/13 "program planning specialist," but the position description is primarily about policy.
DO NOT CONTACT SPACEPOLICYONLINE.COM ABOUT THIS OPENING. NASA asked us to help spread the word -- that's our only involvement. We don't know any more about the job than what's in the posting. Apply through the USA JOBS website.
Here is the three paragraph section that describes the duties.
As a Program Planning Specialist, responsibilities are broad and include: strong emphases on the management of Science Mission Directorate (SMD) relations and communications with external groups; serving as policy expert to develop and maintain relationships with various stakeholders in the government, private industry, and universities to further the agency's research or technology development efforts; and serving as the organizational spokesperson at public meetings, formal and informal, on extremely technical and complex program activities.
Here is our list of space policy events in the coming week, November 17-21, 2014, and any insights we can offer about them. The House and Senate are in session.
During the Week
Congress is in session this week, but anything they are working on regarding space policy and funding is taking place behind the scenes. One set of negotiations is over a compromise version of a FY2015 omnibus appropriations bill that is expected to combine all 12 regular appropriations bill into one and fund the government through the rest of FY2015 (September 30, 2015). Word has it the bill will be publicly released the week of December 8, just in time to get it passed - hopefully - by midnight December 11 when the current Continuing Resolution (CR) expires.
It's not a sure bet, though. House Appropriations Committee chairman Hal Rogers (R-KY) warned this past week that if President Obama issues an Executive Order on immigration (i.e., takes action without waiting for Congress to act) before a deal is done on appropriations, there will be an "explosion." He's worried appropriations will get caught in the crossfire. If a new appropriations bill is not enacted by December 11, the government will shut down like it did in October 2013. Some Tea Party Republicans consider government shutdowns a useful tactic and might try to cause another one in reaction to any Presidential action on immigration. Even absent that, some have been arguing in favor of passing just another CR to fund the government for the first few weeks of the New Year when Republicans will control both the House and Senate and have more power to decide funding matters. (We talked about the road ahead for appropriations in an earlier article.)
Negotiations also are underway on a FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). It is the only annual authorization bill that Congress routinely passes, even if that happens at the very last minute. The House passed its version in May, and the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) approved a version in June, but it has not gone to the Senate floor for debate yet. They will probably skip that step and just bring the compromise to the floor. Congress hasn't missed passing an NDAA for more than 50 years no matter how high the political tensions. Senate John McCain (R-AZ), who likely will chair SASC in the next Congress, included a provision in the SASC-version of the bill prohibiting DOD from contracting with space launch services providers that use Russian suppliers -- aimed at the United Launch Alliance's (ULA's) use of Russian RD-180 engines for the Atlas V. ULA President Tory Bruno said last week that congressional staffers now understand the "very harmful" unintended consequences of that language and are revising it as part of the NDAA negotiations.
Like appropriations, the NDAA probably won't become public for a while yet. Congress will be in recess next week for Thanksgiving, then return for two more weeks to finish what they can for the 113th Congress.
Off the Hill, three NASA Advisory Council committees or subcommittees will meet this week in person or virtually (Planetary Protection on Monday and Tuesday, Institutional on Wednesday and Thursday, and Planetary Science on Friday). The NSF-NASA-DOE Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee meets at NSF on Monday and Tuesday. Alan Ladwig and Courtney Stadd's ISU-DC Space Café discussion is on Tuesday evening (rescheduled from last Tuesday, which was Veterans Day and HBO's Concert for Valor essentially took over DC). And the Secure World Foundation and American Astronautical Society will host a briefing on space weather on the Senate side of the Capitol Visitor Center at lunchtime on Thursday.
Those and other events we know about as of Sunday afternoon are listed below.
Monday-Tuesday, November 17-18
Tuesday, November 18
Tuesday-Thursday, November 18-20
Tuesday-Friday, November 18-21
Wednesday-Thursday, November 19-20
Thursday, November 20
Friday, November 21
Echoing what reports from expert groups have been saying for many years, NASA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) yesterday warned that the biggest challenge facing NASA is getting the budgets needed to accomplish the programs and tasks the agency has been assigned.
The report goes into detail about seven "top management and performance challenges," but the overall theme is the sustainability of NASA's programs amid budget uncertainty.
"NASA's ability to sustain its ambitious exploration, science, and aeronautics programs will be driven in large measure by whether the Agency is able to adequately fund such high profile initiatives as its commercial cargo and crew programs, the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and Orion capsule, James Webb Space Telescope, Mars 2020 Rover, and the personnel and infrastructure associated with these and other missions."
Noting that NASA began FY2015 without a full-year appropriation (NASA is operating under a Continuing Resolution through at least December 11), the OIG report also pointed out that projections for NASA's future funding are flat. "Accordingly, we believe the principal challenge facing NASA leaders in FY2015 will be to effectively manage the Agency's varied programs in an uncertain budget environment."
Having said that, the report identified seven "top challenges," a number of which have been the subject of earlier OIG studies:
The 41-page report goes into some detail under each of those topics based primarily on previous OIG audits.
Some of the key takeaways include the following:
Alluding to what he described as a moment of exciting change for the commercial launch industry, the newly appointed head of the United Launch Alliance (ULA) discussed how his company, the primary U.S. national security launch provider, will adapt to remain on top.
At an event Thursday hosted by the Atlantic Council, Salvatore “Tory” T. Bruno, ULA president and CEO, described his sense of “irrational optimism” at the future of the commercial launch industry. Widespread accessibility will be the key feature of a new environment, he explained, one where government and new commercial customers will need access to space to accomplish “missions we couldn’t conceive of in the past.”
ULA, the Boeing-Lockheed Martin joint venture established in 2006 with a record of 89 successful launches, is banking on experience to remain ahead in an industry facing new competition and possible constraints from foreign policy pressures. Last April, Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) filed a complaint against the U.S. Air Force for awarding an $11 billion block buy contract to ULA for five years’ worth of launches on its Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ULA has stated this block buy saved the government $4 billion, cutting launch prices in half. SpaceX has argued it can offer the same service for much less and is vying to compete for national space security launch contracts.
Although not referring to SpaceX directly, Bruno cited ULA’s “perfect record of mission success,” and “great heritage” as the benefit of doing business with the company. But the country is demanding new things, he said, and “I am going to transform this company.” Bruno vowed to “cash in” the company’s decades of experience, reorganize to make it more agile, and establish new business models to adapt to the new environment. These changes will lead to improvements in how ULA interacts with its customers, both governmental and commercial, shorter launch cycles, and launch costs cut in half again.
Among the changes already under way, in September ULA announced a partnership with Blue Origin for the development of an alternative to the Russian-built RD-180 engine which ULA uses on its Atlas V vehicle. In light of deteriorating diplomatic relations between the United States and Russia, for the past several months policymakers and industry leaders have been debating alternatives to reduce U.S. reliance on Russia for putting critical national security assets in orbit.
ULA intends to phase out the RD-180 over time and transition to an “American solution” to launching satellites using Blue Origin’s BE-4 rocket engine. Bruno said that transition is coming “very soon,” but ULA will continue buying RD-180s under its existing contract with RD-AMROSS and is accelerating their delivery. ULA wants to have eight rather than five delivered next year, he acknowledged.
Senator John McCain (R-AZ), expected to chair the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) in the next Congress, included language in the Senate version of the FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act (S. 2410, sec. 1623) prohibiting DOD from contracting for space launch services from companies using Russian suppliers. Asked about his reaction to the language, Bruno replied that, as originally drafted, the language would have been “very harmful” to ULA in ways “the drafters did not intend” and is being revised as part of negotiations over the final version of the bill.
When asked by a reporter for Russia’s news agency, Itar-TASS, why the RD-180s were being phased out and deliveries accelerated, Bruno made no reference to the tense geopolitical circumstances, however. Instead, he framed it strictly as a business decision. Praising the RD-180 as a “great” engine that is very reliable with “terrific performance,” he nonetheless said it was time to move past the technologies of the 1970s and 1980s and build a lighter engine with improved thrust. As for moving up the delivery timetable, he said that was in response to anticipated market demand for more Atlas V launches.
The Atlantic Council has posted the webcast of the event on its website.
The House and Senate return to work today to finish out the 113th Congress and get ready for the 114th, which begins in January. The congressional landscape will change significantly then, with Republicans taking control of the Senate in addition to the House. Generally, space activities have bi-partisan support in both chambers. Where that has broken down in the past is over budgets and that could be a defining issue in the 114th Congress.
But first, over the next several weeks Congress needs to complete work on FY2015 appropriations. There remains a question as to whether the appropriations will cover the rest of the fiscal year – through September 30, 2015 – or only a few months, but something must be done by December 11 to keep the government open. On that day, the Continuing Resolution (CR) currently funding the government expires.
The prevailing wisdom is that Congress will pass an omnibus FY2015 appropriations bill combining all 12 regular appropriations bills and fund the government through the rest of FY2015. Some Tea Party Republicans, however, want a short term bill to carry the government only through the first few weeks of the New Year when Republicans are in control of both chambers.
The House has passed seven of the 12 regular appropriations bills, and although the Senate has not passed any, the Senate Appropriations Committee completed work on eight. The two that fund most space activities are Defense (national security space programs) and Commerce-Justice-Science (NASA and NOAA). A third, Transportation-HUD, funds activities at the FAA’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation.
The House has passed and the Senate Appropriations Committee has approved all three of those bills increasing the likelihood that final action on them can be completed by year’s end if prevailing wisdom holds true.
Congress also has not yet completed action on new authorization bills for NASA or DOD. Like appropriations, the House has passed bills for both, but the Senate has not passed either. Congress has an unblemished record for more than 50 years of passing annual DOD authorization bills, formally called a National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Pundits are predicting that one will pass this year, too, probably by using the House-passed bill as the basis for a behind-the-scenes compromise and sending it to the Senate floor for a vote, skipping the step of passing a Senate version first.
As for NASA, it is always possible that similar negotiations could also result in a bill clearing Congress this year, but the NASA bill is not considered as crucial as the NDAA. With little time on the legislative calendar, the imminent change in party control, and the departure of key Senate Democratic staffer Ann Zulkosky, getting the NASA bill done could be problematical.
The Senate also is expected to try and approve at least some of President Obama’s nominations, particularly those for judicial positions. Whether Dava Newman’s nomination to be NASA Deputy Administrator can get through in such a short time will depend on many factors, such as whether she has a Senate champion willing to push for it or if any opposition has developed. Expectations were that it would not be considered until next year and that is probably a good bet.
What will happen in the 114th Congress is anyone’s guess. There’s a presidential election coming up in 2016 and each party will use the next two years to convince the electorate to choose a President from their side of the aisle (President Obama cannot run for another term, so there will be no incumbent). Not to mention that all of the House and one-third of the Senate will once again be up for election. How all of that plays out in congressional politics is to be determined. There is much talk at the moment of the two parties working together because the electorate is weary of Washington gridlock, but such talk is typical right after an election. Rarely does it actually lead to compromise. With some Republicans vowing to repeal the Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) and fight the President on issues from immigration to the Keystone Pipeline, it is difficult to be optimistic.
All the committee and subcommittee chairmanships will change in the Senate, since the Republicans are taking control. Even though Republicans retained control in the House, 11 committee chairmanships are up for grabs because of term limits or retirements. There is a lot of speculation about who will be in charge of what, which is important, but in terms of the fate of government-funded space programs, a more important factor is whether deficit cutting returns as the dominant issue in Congress.
Republicans and Democrats have been fighting for the past six years over how to reduce the deficit. The Republicans want only funding cuts, while Democrats want a combination of funding cuts and tax increases. The result of the deadlock over this issue was sequestration – across-the-board funding cuts for federal agencies that are part of the “discretionary spending” portion of the budget that Congress directly allocates (as opposed to mandatory spending for programs like Medicare and Social Security).
Both parties oppose sequestration, but could not reach a compromise on any other solution. In December 2013, a temporary truce was negotiated by the chairs of the House and Senate Budget Committees, Rep. Paul Ryan (R-WI) and Sen. Patty Murray (D-WA), where sequestration limits were lifted, but only for FY2014 and FY2015. Consequently, budget fights were not as intense for FY2015 and NASA, for example, would get a significant boost if it gets what is allocated in its House-passed and Senate Appropriations Committee-approved appropriations bill.
That could be a short-term win, though. Unless Congress changes the law, sequestration is back for FY2016 and beyond. Republicans do not like sequestration any more than Democrats, and now that they will control both chambers, they could try to repeal sequestration and replace it with cuts to mandatory spending. They can only go so far, though, without alienating their own voters or prompting a presidential veto. Discretionary programs like NASA and NOAA could once again be in the budget bulls eye and while DOD as a whole may fare better, it is far from clear if that would extend to its space programs.
A lot of what happens in the 114th Congress may depend on whether "establishment" Republicans, including Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) and incoming Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY), can work with their Tea Party colleagues or if there will be intra-party fights. Also, in the Senate, the Democrats could adopt the tactics McConnell has used so effectively as Minority Leader in preventing action on most legislation. The Senate will have 53 Republicans, 44 Democrats, and 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats, essentially a 53 - 46 split (one race, Louisiana, is still undetermined). That is basically the inverse of the situation today. Just as Senate Republicans stymied action under Democratic control, so could Democrats do the same now that they will be in the minority.
Here is our list of space policy-related events for the week of November 9-15, 2014 and any insight we can offer about them. Congress returns to work on Wednesday, November 12.
During the Week
From a policy perspective, certainly the biggest event this week is the return of Congress after a long break leading up to last week's mid-term elections. As everyone knows, Republicans won control of the Senate and House Republicans added many seats to their side of the aisle. Some races remain undetermined so there is not yet a final count of how many R's and D's there will be in the 114th Congress that convenes in January, but in the Senate there will be at least 52 Republicans, 44 Democrats, and 2 Independents (both currently caucus with Democrats and one has said he will continue to do so in the next Congress). The Senate race in Alaska has not been called yet, and there will be a run-off for the Louisiana Senate seat next month. In the House, there will be at least 244 Republicans and 184 Democrats. The other races have not been called yet. As many observers are pointing out, it has been 80 years since the Democrats have had so few seats in the House. We'll have more on how the changes in Congress could impact space programs in an article later this week.
That's next year, though. On Wednesday, it is the 113th Congress that reconvenes and it still has work to do. The one must-pass piece of legislation is the FY2015 appropriations. The government is currently operating under a Continuing Resolution (CR) that expires on December 11, so Congress has until then to pass another CR or the 12 regular appropriations bills probably packaged together into a single omnibus bill or series of "mini-buses." It is possible that some Republicans may try to delay passage of final appropriations bills until next year when they are in control of both chambers and therefore will agree only to a short-term CR to carry the government over into the New Year, but the betting at the moment seems to be that the matter will be settled by the end of this year. That could change, of course.
There also are big events in space activities coming up. Tonight (Sunday) three International Space Station (ISS) crew members return to Earth in their Soyuz TMA-13M spacecraft: NASA's Reid Wiseman, Europe's Alexander Gerst and Russia's Max Suraev. NASA TV will cover undocking (7:30 pm EST) and landing in Kazakhstan (10:58 pm EST).
Then on Wednesday, November 12, ESA's Philae lander will land on Comet 67P/Churymov-Gerasimenko, the first spacecraft to achieve such a feat. ESA's Rosetta spacecraft, with Philae aboard, arrived at the comet in August after a 10 year journey. Lots of media events in Europe are scheduled for the days before, of, and after the landing. Confirmation that Philae successfully landed is expected about 11:00 am EST on Wednesday. NASA TV will cover that part of the mission from 9:00 - 11:30 am EST.
Those and other events we know about as of Sunday morning are listed below.
Sunday, November 9
Tuesday, November 11
Wednesday, November 12
Friday, November 14
Saturday, November 15
A test flight of the Orion spacecraft under development to take astronauts beyond low Earth orbit is on track for launch on December 4. The Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) is “truly a commercial endeavor” a NASA official pointed out at a briefing today (November 6) that also included representatives of Lockheed Martin and United Launch Alliance (ULA).
The test version of the spacecraft will make two orbits of the Earth primarily to test heat shield technologies, though a number of other in-flight and recovery operations will be tested as well.
NASA’s Orion program manager, Mark Geyer, said the test will cost $370 million for the ULA Delta IV Heavy rocket and hardware (such as the Service Module) that will not be used again. The cost does not include the Orion capsule since it will be reused. When asked what the cost would be if the capsule was included, Geyer replied that NASA is still formulating the total cost of the Orion program and even when it is released (after the Key Decision Point-C or KDP-C review), the cost of this one capsule will not separately identified. This capsule is part of the design, development, test and engineering (DDT&E) effort to get Orion to the first crewed flight, Geyer explained, and a “fraction of the total” cost to get to that point.
Launch is scheduled for 7:05 am ET on December 4 from Launch Complex 37 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL (adjacent to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center). It will land about 4.5 hours later in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Baja California. The launch window is 2 hours and 40 minutes, driven by the need for good lighting conditions during liftoff to obtain imagery of a number of separation events during ascent as well as at the end of the mission for recovery operations in the Pacific. December 5 and 6 are backup days.
NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Development Bill Hill stressed that EFT-1 is “truly a commercial endeavor.” NASA contracted with Orion prime contractor Lockheed Martin for the resulting data only. Lockheed Martin is in charge of the mission, which is licensed by the FAA. ULA has the launch license, and Lockheed Martin has the reentry license.
When asked who has the go/no-go responsibilities, since it is a commercial, not NASA, mission, NASA’s Geyer laid out the structure. For the launch, ULA makes the go/no-go decision. Once Orion is in orbit, NASA’s Orion flight director Mike Sarafin is in charge. There are flight rules and procedures and if something goes outside those rules, the issue would be taken to the Mission Management Team (MMT). The MMT is chaired by Lockheed Martin Mission Director Brian Austin, but NASA is a member of the MMT and discussions would be held, a consensus reached, and the decision forwarded to Sarafin for implementation.
In its two orbits of the Earth, the Orion test capsule will reach an apogee of 3,600 miles, 15 times higher than the International Space Station (ISS), and reenter Earth’s atmosphere at 20,000 miles per hour. No humans have ventured beyond the ISS orbit since the final Apollo mission to the Moon in 1972. When asked how Orion compares with Apollo in terms of heat shield requirements, Geyer said the biggest difference is that Orion is much larger than Apollo – built for four people instead of three. The Orion heat shield is 5 meters (16.4 feet) in diameter compared to 3.7 meters (12.1 feet) for Apollo, he explained, adding that Orion’s heat shield also is made of different materials since some of the Apollo materials were carcinogenic.
This Orion test capsule is not outfitted to carry people. The next Orion flight (Exploration Mission-1 or EM-1), on the first Space Launch System (SLS) test in 2017, also will not carry a crew. The first crewed Orion is scheduled for 2021 on EM-2. Hill said NASA hopes to fly one Orion per year after EM-2 if budgets permit with the goal of sequentially buying down risk to enable human trips to Mars. One of those flights will be the Asteroid Redirect Mission, though he was not specific about which one. Orion can support four people for 21 days. For longer flights, a habitation module will be needed and a funding wedge needs to be created to develop that hardware, Hill said.
A major theme echoed by the speakers on today’s panel was that spaceflight is “hard” as last week’s Antares and SpaceShipTwo accidents demonstrated. Hill stressed, however, that there is no commonality between any of the systems involved in those accidents and the EFT-1 mission.
Correction: An earlier version of this article said that Orion's apogee would be 3,600 kilometers, but it is 3,600 miles.