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The Secure World Foundation (SWF) released its seventh Space Security report today. Space Security 2010 analyzes what happened in 2009 affecting space security. Not surprisingly, much attention is focused on the February 2009 collision between a U.S. Iridium satellite and a defunct Russian satellite that generated substantial amounts of space debris. That event stimulated the United States and other spacefaring countries to ratchet up efforts at space situational awareness so satellite operators can ensure satellites stay out of each other's way.
The annual index identifies trends and developments in a given year that impact space security, which its sponsors define as "The secure and sustainable access to, and use of, space and freedom from space-based threats." Those sponsors are SWF, The Simons Foundation, Project Ploughshares (Canada), the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University (Montreal), and Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
UPDATE AND CORRECTION: An astute reader pointed out (thanks!) that it is, in fact, September now, not August, so the title has been corrected. The information on the NRC planetary decadal meeting has been updated.
Welcome back from the Labor Day holiday! The following events may be of interest this week. For more information see our calendar on the right menu or click the links below. Congress will return next week.
Tuesday, September 7
Wednesday-Friday, September 8-10
- National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey Steering Committee (the meeting is by telecon and is closed in its entirety).
Thursday-Friday, September 9-10
Friday, September 10
Rep. Bart Gordon (D-TN), chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee, has responded to the signers of the "Nobel Prize winners" letter that sought changes in the House version of the NASA authorization bill. The letter, dated September 3, explains and defends the position taken by the committee and reveals that the committee will delete provisions it included to establish a loan guarantee program for the development of "commercial crew."
Saying that "NASA is at a crossroads" and needs a "balanced, sustainable, mission-driven and executable" path, Rep. Gordon calls for "a NASA budget that is honest." He characterizes the committee's bill as "a common-sense and balanced solution to a complicated situation that will help avoid future instability for the agency."
Noting that in April President Obama added a "multi-billion dollar crew rescue vehicle program" to the FY2011 budget request submitted in February that would require "offsets of $1-2 billion per year over the next five years from other NASA accounts," the letter asserts that "The hard reality is that the Administration has sent an unexecutable budget request to Congress, and we now have to make tough choices..."
One choice the committee made in writing the bill was to provide loan guarantees to companies wanting to develop commercial crew systems instead of direct government funding as proposed by the President. In the letter, Rep. Gordon reveals that when the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) looked at that provision to determine how much the government might be liable for, the cost made the program "unviable." Consequently, "we will need to remove the loan guarantee provisions" and instead will "look for ways to cost effectively fund commercial crew-related activities that can benefit the whole industry while ensuring that other critical missions are supported and within the overall budget constraints."
Matching resources with program content is the overall theme of the letter. Mr. Gordon concedes that "this is not a perfect bill" and "just one step in the process," but as negotiations move forward "it is important to keep in mind that increasing funding in one program will require a funding reduction in another program."
We have updated our fact sheet on NASA's FY2011 budget request and expanded it to include the projections for FY2012-2013 that were included in the President's budget request and are considered in the House and Senate NASA authorization bills. There are five tables in all that we hope you find useful. We'll update them as action proceeds. The fact sheet can be located on our left menu under Our Fact Sheets and Reports or simply by clicking here.
Fourteen Nobel Prize winners plus former NASA officials, former astronauts and others sent a letter to House Science and Technology Committee Chairman Bart Gordon (D-TN) urging him to reconsider the provisions of the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 5781) reported by his committee. The bill has not yet been voted upon by the House.
The letter supports President Obama's plan to rely exclusively on commercial companies to launch astronauts to low Earth orbit (LEO) instead of NASA: "first, allow commercial providers to handle operations in low Earth orbit so that NASA's human spaceflight program can focus on exploration beyond Earth orbit instead of trying to 'do it all,' which is unaffordable." The House committee's version of the bill supports "commercial crew" conceptually, but would not provide the level of financial support requested by the President for FY2011 and projected through FY2015, a total of almost $6 billion. Instead, the House committee recommends loans and loan guarantees to assist the commercial companies.
Both the House committee's bill and the bill that passed the Senate last month (S. 3729) require NASA to develop its own crew transportation system for LEO and beyond, promising that the government system will not compete with any commercial systems that emerge. The Senate bill is much more supportive of commercial efforts, though not as strongly as the President.
Funding for the new NASA crew transportation system and for a possible additional space shuttle flight would come primarily from technology development funds requested for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate in both bills. A separate pot of technology development money allocated to NASA's Chief Technologist, Bobby Braun, would be fully funded in the House committee's bill, but cut significantly by the Senate.
Though the letter is only to the House, not the Senate, it calls for restoration of the technology development funding. It also supports robotic precursor missions. The House committee says in its report (H. Rept. 111-576) that it considers robotic precursons only as "'nice-to-have' until the mission objectives to justify a robotic reconnaissance mission in advance of planned human exploration are established." Lastly, the letter urges more investment in university and student research.
Among the signers of the letter are Nobelist David Baltimore and University of Michigan Professor Lennard Fisk, both of whom were members of the National Academies' committee that wrote the 2009 "America's Future in Space" report. Dr. Fisk and another letter signer, Nobelist Charles Townes, are former chairmen of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board. Bill Nye, who will soon become executive director of the Planetary Society, is another signatory; the Planetary Society sent a separate letter with similar views to the bipartisan leadership of the House and Senate authorization and appropriations subcommittees that oversee NASA earlier in August.
Three other signatories -- Nobelist Douglas Osheroff, former NASA Ames Research Center Director Scott Hubbard, and George Washington University Professor Emeritus John Logsdon -- were members of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) that determined the cause of the 2003 space shuttle Columbia tragedy. The CAIB report also drew attention to the lack of, and need for, a national mandate for the human spaceflight program to justify the risks involved. Hubbard and Logsdon reportedly led this letter-writing effort.
Informed sources say that the letter was addressed only to the House because that bill has yet to be voted upon and the hope is to change it prior to passage to facilitate negotiations with the Senate.
The steering committee for the Space Studies Board's (SSB's) new Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) will hold its inaugural meeting this week from Wednesday to Friday (Sept. 1-3). Most of the meeting is closed, but the agenda for the open sessions is posted on that website. The committee is chaired by Dan Baker of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Thomas Zurbuchen of the University of Michigan is the Vice-Chair. The two are chair and vice-chair, respectively, of the SSB's standing committee on solar and space physics.
Other committee members are: Brian Anderson, Applied Physics Lab; Steve Battel, Battel Engineering; James Drake, University of Maryland; Lennard Fisk, University of Michigan (and former chair of the SSB); Saran Gibson, NCAR; Michael Hesse, NASA/Goddard; Todd Hoeksema, Stanford; David Hysell, Cornell; Mary Hudson, Dartmouth; Thomas Immel, UC Berkeley; Justin Kasper, Harvard-SAO; Judith Lean, Naval Research Lab; Ramon Lopez, UT-Arlington; Howard Singer, NOAA; Harlan Spence, University of New Hampshire; and Ed Stone, CalTech.
The committee will have three disciplinary panels: Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions; Panel on Solar-Wind Magnetosphere Interactions; and Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics. It also will have four "national capabilities working groups": theory and modeling; Explorers, Suborbital and Other Platforms; Innovations: Technology, Instruments, Data Systems; and Research to Operations/Operations to Research.
For more information, see the website for the Decadal Survey. For more on Decadal Surveys, see our National Research Council page on our left menu at SpacePolicyOnline.com.
The National Research Council (NRC) published the new Decadal Survey on astronomy and astrophysics (Astro2010) earlier this month. Now it has released the reports of the nine panels that fed into the steering committee's deliberations. Five were science panels; four were programmatic. All the panel reports are combined into a single volume available from the National Academies Press.
The Science Frontier Panels were:
- Cosmology and Fundamental Physics
- Galactic Neighborhood
- Galaxies Across Cosmic Time
- Planetary Systems and Star Formation
- Stars and Stellar Evolution
The Program Prioritization Panels were:
- Electromagnetic Observations from Space
- Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground
- Particle Astrophysics and Gravitation
- Radio, Millimeter, and Submillimeter Astronomy from the Ground
The steering committee was responsible for determining the priorities identified in the report and making other recommendations, but its deliberations were informed by the panels. The science panels identified the top scientific questions in astronomy and astrophysics driving research in the next 10 years. The program prioritization panels then had to rank the ground- or space-based missions that are needed to answer those questions within available budgets using independent estimates of cost and technical readiness. The panel reports thus provide the richness of detail that underpins the recommendations of the steering committee.
Kevin Marvel, executive director of the American Astronomical Society, wrote an op-ed for Space News that was published in today's edition. He urges the astronomy and astrophysics community to support the Decadal Survey's recommendations and not use them as a "gripe list to be mulled over." He warns against "[b]ickering, in-fighting [and] the rule of self-interest" lest the report fail: "If this report fails, astronomy and astrophysics in this nation will fail as well." [Editor's Note: some Space News content is available only to subscribers; apologies if the link to the op-ed does not work.]
President Obama will announce reforms to the U.S. export control system today according to a fact sheet released by the White House. The reforms are "a major step forward in the Administration's efforts to fundamentally reform the export control system" and "will help strengthen our national security" according to the release.
Included in the reforms are overhauls of the State Department's Munitions List and the Commerce Department's Commerce Control List. They will be structured as "positive lists" that describe "controlled items using objective criteria ... rather than broad, open-ended, subjective, catch-all, or design intent-based criteria," which will "end most, if not all, jurisdictional disputes and ambiguities..."
The lists then will be split into three tiers, which the fact sheet explains as follows:
- Items in the highest tier are those that provide a critical military or intelligence advantage to the United States and are available almost exclusively from the United States, or items that are a weapon of mass destruction.
- Items in the middle tier are those that provide a substantial military or intelligence advantage to the United States and are available almost exclusively from our multilateral partners and Allies.
- Items in the lowest tier are those that provide a significant military or intelligence advantage but are available more broadly.
Licensing policies and export enforcement also will change. The White House said that it will continue to work with Congress and the export control community on its longer range goal of combining all of these activities "under a single licensing agency and single export enforcement coordination agency."
Jim Oberg posted a message on Friends and Partners in Space reporting that former astronaut Bill Lenoir was killed in a bicycle accident yesterday. The news is also reported on collectSpace.
Lenoir flew on STS-5, the first "operational" space shuttle mission, which delivered a communications satlelite to orbit. He and crewmate Joe Allen were scheduled to make the first spacewalk from the shuttle, but mechanical problems with their spacesuits foiled that plan. Lenoir later came to NASA Headquarters and ran the shuttle program.
Using data from the Kepler spacecraft, scientists have confirmed the discovery of a multi-planet system in the constellation Lyra about 2,000 light years away, made up of at least two gas-giants similar to Saturn in size and mass. The results, which increase the mission's confirmed planet count to seven since its launch in March 2009, were announced by the Kepler team in a teleconference held today.
William Borucki, Kepler Mission Science Principal Investigator, explained that "instead of taking pictures, [Kepler] measures the brightness of stars," variations of which are used by scientists to determine characteristics such as the orbital period, mass, and size of the planets that cross or transit them. Matthew Holman, Associate Director of the Theoretical Astrophysics Division at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said that using a technique called "transit timing variations" the team was able to utilize data collected over several months to study successive transits of the planets - Kepler 9B and Kepler 9C - and to analyze the gravitational interaction between them. By studying how the gravity of a planet affects the orbits of others, this technique, which Holman and a group of scientists first proposed in 2005, has now been proven to work as a tool to confirm the presence of planets.
But transit timing variation, which Borucki described as a "new, impressive," and "important" technique, does much more than just find them. Alycia Weinberger of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington explained that studying the way planets "tug at each other," which causes those transit variations, can even help teach us about how planets form and how they "migrate" into their particular configuration, a study which may provide clues as to the likelihood of low-mass, Earth-sized planets in other systems. "How a planetary system looks today has a lot to tell us about how it formed," she added.
The "super-Earth" category planet apparently orbiting the same star may have already been found in this same system, but work is ongoing to confirm this. With an orbital period of 1.6 days, this object would be the smallest planet to be observed in transit. As they keep hard at work to rule out "astrophysical false positives" regarding this third object, the team remains hopeful that this is just the beginning for a mission they expect will yield new exciting discoveries in the years to come.
Events of Interest
- NASA Bfg on Dawn's Arrival at Dwarf Planet Ceres, March 2, 2015, JPL, Pasadena, CA, 9:00 am Pacific Time (12:00 noon Eastern) Webcast
- Senate Commerce Cmte Hrg on FY2016 Budget Requests for Dept of Commerce and Dept of Transportation, March 3, 2015, 253 Russell Senate Office Building, 9:00 am ET
- House Appropriations CJS Sbcmt Hrg on FY2016 Budget Request for Dept of Commerce, March 3, 2015, H-309 Capitol, 2:00 pm ET
- Senate Armed Services Cmte Hrg on FY2016 Budget Request for Dept of Defense, March 3, 2015, 216 Hart Senate Office Building, 2:30 pm ET
- House Appropriations Defense Sbcmt Hrg on FY2016 Budget Request for Dept of Defense, March 4, 2015, 2359 Rayburn House Office Building, 10:00 am ET
- House Appropriations CJS Sbcmte Hrg on FY2016 Budget Request for NASA, March 4, 2015, H-309 Capitol, 10:30 am ET
- Senate Armed Services Cmte Posture Hrg for Army and Air Force, March 5, 2015, G-50 Dirksen Senate Office Building, 9:30 am ET
- Senate Appropriations CJS Sbcmte Hrg on FY2016 Budget Request for NASA, March 5, 2014, 192 Dirksen Senate Office Building, 10:30 am ET
Full calendar of future events (with filters)-click here »
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