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Elsevier, publisher of the quarterly journal Space Policy, has released a special issue of the journal to honor Molly Macauley, who was murdered on July 8. Macauley was a member of the journal's editorial board and authored or co-authored 14 articles for it over the years. The special issue makes those articles available for free and offers tributes from 25 of her space policy colleagues and friends.
The Virtual Special Issue is posted on Elsevier's Space Policy website. Macauley's articles can be read or downloaded for free until the end of 2016. The most recent was a co-authored paper published in 2013: Policy for Robust Space-Based Earth Science, Technology and Applications.
Macauley was an economist who spent most of her career at Resources for the Future (RFF), a Washington-based think tank focused on environmental issues. Before joining RFF in 1983, she was a policy analyst at the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT). She was one of the few economists who specialized in satellites and the space program, especially earth science and applications from space. She was murdered while walking her dogs near her home in Baltimore, MD. The police continue to investigate.
A celebration of life service was held in Baltimore on July 23 and RFF plans a memorial service in Washington, DC in September (details pending).
Editor's Note: I am the North American editor of Space Policy and was privileged to help pull together the special issue for Molly, whom I knew for more than 30 years. The special issue includes some personal photos of Molly from colleagues. I provided one of them and have decided to post it here, too, as a happy memory at a sad time. In 1995, 10 of us women in the Washington space policy community decided to meet for afternoon tea at the Ritz-Carlton in Arlington, VA -- wearing hats. The idea was inspired by Eilene Galloway (1906-2009) and her delightful collection from the era when ladies wore hats. It was such fun and the photo is a wonderful way to remember Molly.
In a pair of new reports, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) warns about the costs and schedules for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS), Exploration Ground Systems (EGS) and Orion spacecraft, the three components of its Exploration Systems Development program. SLS and EGS cost and schedule reserves are low enough to imperil the November 2018 commitment date for the SLS first launch, GAO concludes in one report. In the other, it asserts that cost and schedule estimates for Orion failed to meet more than half of the "best practices" for creating such estimates, making them unreliable.
In the first report, NASA Human Space Exploration: Opportunity Nears to Reassess Launch Vehicle and Ground Systems Cost and Schedule, GAO looked at two components of the program: SLS and EGS. The latter are the ground systems at Kennedy Space Center needed to support SLS and Orion. The congressional watchdog agency is primarily concerned with cost and schedule reserves to deal with known and unknown risks as the programs move forward.
The SLS program "has not positioned itself well to provide accurate assessments of core stage progress--including forecasting impending schedule delays, cost overruns, and anticipated costs at completion--because at the time of our review it did not anticipate having the baseline to support full reporting on the core stage contract until summer 2016--some 4.5 years after NASA awarded the contract."
As for EGS, constrained cost and schedule reserves threaten the November 2018 launch readiness goal and a scheduled integrated design review (IDR) will "have limited discussion of cost and schedule." GAO recommended that NASA "reevaluate cost and schedule reserves" as part of the IDR. The GAO report was released July 27, but apparently was written earlier since it refers to the IDR, scheduled for June 2016, as planned for the future.
A separate "build-to-synchronization" review of how all three elements of the program -- SLS, Orion and EGS --will come together for the first launch, Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1), is planned for the summer of 2016 and GAO wants NASA to use that as an opportunity to realistically assess whether November 2018 is achievable. "NASA does not have to meet a specific schedule window for its launch date as it often does with planetary missions. As a result, NASA is in the position of being able to make an informed decision about what is a realistic launch readiness date."
The second report, Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Action Needed to Improve Visibility into Cost, Schedule, and Capacity to Resolve Technical Challenges, concludes that NASA's cost and schedule estimates for the Orion program are "not reliable based on best practices for producing high quality estimates."
"GAO found that the Orion cost estimate met or substantially met 7 of 20 best practices and its schedule estimate met or substantially met 1 of 8 best practices. For example, the cost estimate lacked necessary support and the schedule estimate did not include the level of detail required for high quality estimates."
EM-1 will launch an uncrewed version of Orion. The first Orion with a crew is scheduled for EM-2. NASA provided cost and schedule estimates for Orion following its Key Decision Point-C (KDP-C) review last year, a milestone at which the agency commits to a baseline cost and schedule against which the program will be measured by Congress and the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB). KDP-C reviews use a Joint Confidence Level (JCL) process to set the cost and schedule with a 70 percent confidence level meaning there is a 70 percent chance that it will come in on that cost and schedule and a 30 percent chance that it will not.
Following the KDP-C review, NASA committed to launching EM-2 in April 2023, a 20-month slip from its original plan, with a cost estimate of $11.3 billion. It was the JCL used for the KDP-C review that GAO found did not meet many of the best practices needed for reliable estimates.
Although NASA committed to launching EM-2 in 2023, the agency continues to work towards an internal deadline of August 2021, the original date, with a cost estimate of $10.8 billion. GAO reports that cost and schedule estimate has only a 40 percent confidence level and NASA is focused on it despite NASA's own policy "that funding for program internal goals ... in no case [be] less than the equivalent of a 50 percent confidence level." In addition, NASA is requesting funding at the level to meet the April 2023 date and relying "on Congress to appropriate more funds than requested to stay on its internal Orion schedule" which may be "unrealistic."
GAO cites a number of challenges facing the Orion program, including late delivery of the spacecraft's Service Module for EM-1 (the uncrewed test flight), which is being provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), and notes that formal agreement has not yet been reached with ESA on the Service Module for EM-2. ESA is providing the EM-1 Service Module not under contract to NASA, but as part of a barter arrangement involving the NASA-ESA partnership in the International Space Station program. The EM-2 Service Module is an option under the barter arrangement, but formal agreement is not expected until December 2016. Orion program officials are tracking the EM-2 service module "as one of the largest cost risks facing the program," potentially $200 million, GAO asserts.
Other risks in the Orion program are the use of Orbital Maneuvering System engines from the space shuttle program that need to be re-qualified since the Orion operating environment is quite different from the shuttle's; heatshield design; software development and testing; a "bow wave" of deferred work; and potential cost overruns by Orion's prime contractor, Lockheed Martin. GAO states the prime contractor is "falling behind schedule, and work is costing more than originally estimated." GAO concluded that Orion "faces a potential cost overrun of between $258 million and $707 million through the end of the current contract in December 2020," although Orion program officials told GAO there are sufficient reserves to cover that cost growth. GAO warns, however, that some of those reserves may be needed to cover cost growth from other risks.
GAO recommended that NASA update its JCL analysis using best practices and perform an analysis of the cost of deferred work. In written comments included in the report, NASA responded that it regularly reviews Orion performance metrics and an updated JCL analysis is not warranted, but agreed to look at the cost of deferred work.
A recent Senate committee hearing focused on how to ensure that the human spaceflight program avoids another dramatic change when a new President takes office next year as it did in 2009. While most of the hearing dealt with maintaining the status quo amid political change, one witness, Mike Gold of SSL, looked more to the future and the need for a synergistic relationship between government and private sector space activities.
The hearing before the Subcommittee on Space, Science and Competitiveness of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee on July 13 was chaired by Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX). This was only the third space hearing he had called since becoming subcommittee chairman last year. SpacePolicyOnline.com summarized his February 24, 2015 hearing on human spaceflight and commercial space and his March 12, 2015 hearing on NASA's FY2016 budget request.
Joining him were the top Democrat on the subcommittee, Sen. Gary Peters (D-MI), the top Democrat on the full committee Sen. Bill Nelson (D-FL) and subcommittee member Sen. Steve Daines (R-MT), who introduced Gold, a Montana native.
Peters and Nelson explicitly said they want to pass a new NASA authorization bill before the end of the Congress, and Cruz inferred it by saying that the subcommittee wants to provide NASA with security and stability and he would work with Peters to achieve that. Nelson made clear that he wants to extend the lifetime of the International Space Station (ISS) to the end of the decade, instead of the current U.S. commitment of 2024.
The last NASA authorization bill was passed in 2010. Its policy provisions remain in force, but its funding recommendations covered only through FY2013. The House passed a bipartisan 2015 NASA authorization bill by voice vote in February 2015, but the Senate has not taken it up or introduced an alternative. (A 2016-2017 NASA authorization act was approved by the House Science, Space, and Technology committee on a party-line vote last year; no further action has occurred.)
One known area of disagreement between Republicans and Democrats is NASA’s earth science program. Democrats strongly support it while Republicans argue that NASA should focus on exploration and other agencies should be responsible for studying Earth. Time is running short for passing anything other than appropriations bills, but if all parties on both sides of Capitol Hill can reach agreement, it is certainly possible to get a bill passed by the end of the year.
The goal of passing a bill that codifies congressional intent on the future of the human spaceflight program is to try and avoid the disruption that occurred when President Obama cancelled the George W. Bush Administration's Constellation program to return humans to the Moon by 2020 and then go on to Mars. Cruz wanted to know what lessons were learned from the cancellation of Constellation and the consequences if the current Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion programs were similarly cancelled.
Bill Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, emphasized that the situation today is quite different because so much progress has been made on SLS and Orion, which are only two years away from their first launch. Cancelling them would have the same "dire" effect as terminating Constellation. "There's a passion that sits below us and when you cancel a program ... for seemingly a trivial reason, that is very devastating to our workforce and that can have huge implications to this nation, to our culture, to our psyche, and to our world leadership.”
Constellation was cancelled for complex political and budgetary reasons that few in the space policy community would characterize as trivial, but he may have been expressing his perception of the workforce’s viewpoint. In any case, he said he hopes the situation is not repeated.
Mary Lynne Dittmar, Executive Director of the Coalition for Deep Space Exploration, cautioned against the negative consequences of cancelling programs for companies, especially small businesses. A lack of “constancy of purpose” could “kill small companies,” many of which are members of the Coalition, she said. Purdue University Professor Dan Dumbacher, a former NASA deputy associate administrator for exploration, similarly called for “continuity of purpose and execution” in order to “avoid loss of momentum.”
Mark Sirangleo, Vice President, Space Systems Group at Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) praised the public-private partnership (PPP) model that NASA is using for the commercial cargo and commercial crew programs. Although SNC did not win one of the two commercial crew contracts (SpaceX and Boeing were the winners), its Dream Chaser spacecraft did recently win one of three CRS2 commercial cargo contracts (along with SpaceX and Orbital ATK).
Gold, who spent a decade as head of Washington operations for Bigelow Aerospace before moving to SSL earlier this year, went further in his enthusiasm for the PPP model and using it to transform low Earth orbit (LEO). “The future of LEO remains squarely on the shoulders of the private sector,” he argued, since the government is unlikely to build a replacement for the ISS. The challenge is to create private sector demand. He believes the solution is in-orbit satellite manufacturing and satellite servicing. The geostationary communications satellites industry is worth hundreds of billions of dollars a year, he said, so NASA and the private sector should “follow the money.” “The primitive days of building a satellite, launching it, and throwing away a piece of hardware worth hundreds of millions of dollars simply because it ran out of fuel is coming to an end.”
When asked if the private sector should be in charge of developing new rockets like SLS instead of the government, he argued that it is not an either-or situation. There is synergy between the two and SLS is a case in point, opening up “all kinds of opportunities for the private sector” in cis-lunar space, for example.
In the shorter term, keeping SLS and Orion on track during the presidential transition was a major theme for the subcommittee and other witnesses. Gerstenmaier pleaded that Congress avoid “overly specifying requirements” and allow technical experts to determine how best to achieve the goal of moving human presence into the solar system. Dumbacher quipped that there are two problems to overcome – gravity and red tape – and gravity can be solved.
Gerstenmaier strongly defended the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as an “excellent” way to demonstrate and learn the skills needed to send crews to Mars.
As the hearing concluded, Nelson asked Gerstenmaier what lessons were learned from the Orbital ATK and SpaceX commercial cargo failures in 2014 and 2015 respectively. Gerstenmaier responded that he learned how quickly the private sector can react and find solutions. Orbital ATK found an alternative launch service provider (United Launch Alliance) to continue launching its Cygnus cargo spacecraft while it solved the problem with the Antares rocket. SpaceX diagnosed the problem with its Falcon 9 rocket and was in a test facility to verify it within two days. That was “faster than I could have ever done.. …It would have been half a year” to get the contracts and test sequence in place. “I think what we really learned is that the private sector, if we give them the right incentives and we have the contracting structures set up, they can deliver the capabilities that we, at NASA, need in a very effective manner.”
Here is our list of space policy related events for the week of July 25-29, 2016 and any insight we can offer about them. The House and Senate are in recess until September 6.
During the Week
Nationally, the big event this week is the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia. Not much is expected in the realm of space policy, although former astronaut Mark Kelly will speak on Wednesday. He will appear with his wife, former Rep. Gabby Giffords, who survived an assassination attempt in 2011. They have become leaders in the gun control movement and that is expected to be the focus of their presentation, not the space program (but one never knows). None of the congressional Democrats with leading roles in space policy are on the speakers list as of today (Sunday), although Rep. Adam Schiff (D-CA) will be there. He represents the district that includes the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena and is known as a strong supporter of JPL programs, but he no longer serves on the House Appropriations subcommittee that funds NASA. He moved over to the Intelligence Committee and his comments are more likely to focus on those issues. The latest version (July 21) of the 51-page Democratic party platform has one paragraph about NASA that expresses pride in what it has accomplished and promises to "strengthen support for NASA and work in partnership with the international scientific community to launch new missions into space." We didn't see anything about either commercial or national security space activities in the document.
Within the space policy community, the focus this week will be meetings of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) and its committees all week. The meetings are at the Ohio Aerospace Center in Cleveland, but will be available by WebEx and telecon for those who cannot attend in person. This will be the first NAC meeting since Steve Squyres stepped down as chair. Former astronaut Ken Bowersox has been appointed the interim chair. He had been chairing the NAC Human Exploration and Operations (NAC/HEO) Committee and Wayne Hale has been appointed to fill that position.
The NAC/HEO committee meets tomorrow and Tuesday. Michele Gates, program director for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is on the schedule for 2:30 pm ET tomorrow (Monday) to give an update on ARM, which just went through one of its milestone reviews -- Key Decision Point-B or KDP-B -- on July 15 to determine whether the project is ready to move into Phase B. [A description of KDPs and project phases is in the NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120 document for those keenly interested in NASA program management.] NASA has not made any announcement about what transpired at the KDP-B review. We were told nothing would be out until this coming week, so hopefully Gates will provide that information.
The other NAC committees/task groups meet Monday-Wednesday in advance of the full NAC meeting Thursday and Friday. Always interesting to listen to if you have the time.
AIAA's Propulsion and Energy Conference is also on tap this week in Salt Lake City, Utah. Great line-up of sessions and speakers. Winner for cleverest title in our view is "Launch Vehicle Reusability: Holy Grail, Chasing Our Tail, or Somewhere in Between?" The conference will be livestreamed. Remember that Utah is in the Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) zone, which is two hours behind Eastern Daylight Time (i.e. 9:00 am MDT is 11:00 am EDT).
Those events and others we know about as of Sunday morning are shown below. Check back throughout the week for additions to the Events of Interest that we learn about later. For convenience, we're grouping all the NAC meetings together rather than listing them day-by-day. They are listed separately in our Events of Interest list.
NASA Advisory Council (NAC) and its subgroups, Monday-Friday, July 25-29, all at Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, Ohio and available by WebEx/telecon
Monday-Tuesday, July 25-26
Monday-Wednesday, July 25-27
Monday-Thursday, July 25-28
Tuesday, July 26
Tuesday-Friday, July 26-29
Former space shuttle commander Eileen Collins spoke at the GOP presidential convention tonight arguing for a strong space program. She did not endorse Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, however, even though such an endorsement apparently was part of her prepared remarks.
Collins spoke on the 47th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon and called for leadership similar to that of President John F. Kennedy who initiated the Apollo program. "We landed on the Moon to fulfill a leadership challenge and to explore...Nations that lead on the frontier, lead in the world. We need that visionary leadership again. Leadership that will inspire the next generation of explorers to have that same passion."
Her verbal remarks ended: "We need leadership [where] Americans will ask again "What's next?' We need leadership that will make America's space program first again. And we need leadership that will make America great again. I want to thank all of you, thank you for what you're doing, God bless America."
According to a transcript of her prepared remarks provided by the GOP Convention to Syracuse University (her alma mater) and posted on the university's website, however, the ending was supposed to be "We need leadership that will make America first again. That leader is Donald Trump. Thank you and God bless the United States of America."
Thus, although she did not read the line endorsing Trump, she did use his slogan "make America great again" instead of "make America first again" as in the prepared remarks.
Collins's decision to speak to the GOP convention sparked controversy in the Twitterverse over whether a former astronaut should be engaging in partisan politics, although as some pointed out, former astronauts John Glenn, Harrison "Jack" Schmitt and Jack Swigert actually ran for national political office. Glenn, a Democrat, and Schmitt, a Republican, served as Senators; Swigert, a Republican, was elected to the House, but died before he could take office.
In any case, her speech was closely watched in the space community and, as delivered, sounded familiar pro-space themes. She did point out that the United States has been unable to launch astronauts into space since the termination of the space shuttle in 2011, exclaiming "We must do better than that," but stayed away from attributing the shuttle's cancellation to either political party.
In fact, both parties were responsible. Republican President George W. Bush made the decision in 2004 to terminate the space shuttle once construction of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed, expected in 2010. The shuttle was still flying when Democratic President Barack Obama took office in 2009 and he chose to adopt the Bush decision rather than reverse it and continue the program. Two shuttle flights were added during the Obama Administration extending the program to 2011 rather than 2010. They were added to comply with congressional direction in the 2008 NASA authorization act to deliver a scientific instrument, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, and to deliver supplies and equipment that required the space shuttle's unique cargo capacity.
Collins piloted the space shuttle twice (STS-64 and STS-84) and commanded two shuttle missions (STS-93 and STS-114, the 2005 return-to-flight mission following the 2003 space shuttle Columbia accident). She retired from NASA in 2006.
A video about the space program preceded her speech.
Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) also briefly mentioned the space program during his remarks tonight, though they will be remembered mostly because he also failed to endorse Trump. Regarding space, during a series of statements about the power of freedom, he said that 47 years ago America put men on the Moon and "that's the power of freedom." Cruz chairs the Senate subcommittee that oversees NASA and earlier in the day released a brief video highlighting the Apollo 11 anniversary.
Former House speaker Newt Gingrich was also at the podium this evening and there was speculation that he might mention the anniversary because he is a strong supporter of the space program, but he did not.
Former astronaut Eileen Collins is scheduled to speak tonight at the GOP Convention in Cleveland, Ohio. Whether coincidental or not, today is the 47th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon and the theme for tonight, the third night of the convention, is Make America First Again. Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX), who posted a video and tweeted about the anniversary today, is also on the schedule. He chairs the Senate subcommittee that oversees NASA. Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, an avid space supporter, also will speak.
Whether Cruz or Gingrich will focus on the space program is unclear, but Collins, the first woman to command the space shuttle, told Mashable that she plans to talk about the inspiration of the Apollo program and to "raise awareness of how the U.S. human space program has slowed over the years." She was the pilot of STS-63 and STS-84, and commanded STS-93 and STS-114, the 2005 return to flight mission following the 2003 space shuttle Columbia tragedy. She retired from NASA in 2006.
[UPDATE: to read about what happened, click here.]
At a congressional hearing earlier this year, Collins complained that program cancellations "made by bureaucracies, behind closed doors, without input by the people, are divisive, damaging, cowardly, and many times more expensive in the long run." She was a member of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) when the Constellation program was cancelled by the Obama Administration, a decision that came as a surprise to everyone on NAC, she said.
The GOP's schedule for tonight lists her as the fourth speaker. The event gets underway at 7:00 pm ET.
Cruz chaired a hearing on the future of the space program last week (SpacePolicyOnline's summary of the hearing will be posted soon) and today posted a video and tweeted about the Apollo 11 anniversary (the link to the video is embedded in the tweet).
Cruz's comments in the three hearings he has held about space since the beginning of 2015 demonstrate a strong interest in U.S. leadership in space exploration, primarily human exploration, and belief that NASA should focus on space science and exploration and not earth science.
Gingrich is a well known space enthusiast. During his own campaign for President in 2012, he advocated for a Moon base by 2020, a Mars colony, new propulsion systems and more.
The international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) has cancelled its biennial conference for this year, which was scheduled to take place in Istanbul, Turkey from July 30-August 7. COSPAR President Lennard Fisk called it a "difficult and sad decision," but the wise course of action following this weekend's attempted coup.
COSPAR was created in 1958 as part of the International Council for Science (formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions). It holds a "scientific assembly" every two years that brings together the world's top space scientists who share and discuss their recent discoveries and future plans. The 2014 COSPAR meeting was in Russia (Moscow) and the 2018 COSPAR meeting will be in the United States (Pasadena). The Space Studies Board (SSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is the U.S. national committee to COSPAR.
Fisk is the first American to serve as COSPAR President. A Distinguished University Professor at the University of Michigan, he is a former SSB chairman and former NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications.
NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden decided on June 21 to cancel all NASA-sponsored travel to the Istanbul conference because of security concerns based on a travel advisory from the State Department that restricted official travel to "mission critical" tasks. At the time, similar advisories (alerts and warnings) were in effect for a significant number of other countries, and focused on concerns about the southeastern portion of Turkey. Istanbul is in the northwest. Under the circumstances at that time, Fisk expressed concern that NASA's action was sending the wrong messages about responding to terrorism and the importance of space science.
The situation has changed dramatically since then. On June 28, terrorists attacked the Istanbul airport. On July 15, an attempted coup occurred. Following the coup attempt, U.S. airlines now are prohibited from flying to or from the Istanbul and Ankara airports, and all airlines, regardless of country of registry, are prohibited from flying into the United States from Turkey either directly or via a third country.
In a statement on the COSPAR website, Fisk cited the coup attempt as the final straw in COSPAR's decision to cancel. "This is a difficult and sad decision, taken in consultation with the Executive Director of the COSPAR Secretariat and in consideration of the advice spontaneously expressed by several Bureau and Council members as well as COSPAR officers and Main Scientific event Organizers. It also reflects the sense of responsibilities of the President, Bureau and Secretariat of COSPAR."
He stressed that COSPAR had been trying to maintain the conference to reflect "our common intent to resist terrorism and our willingness to respect the efforts of the local organizer. But now, that is no longer possible. ... [I]t was our duty to try and maintain the Istanbul Assembly, notwithstanding the risks related to terrorism that can strike anywhere, as sadly demonstrated on 14 July in Nice (France), but also in the last few weeks in Orlando (USA), Dhaka (Bangladesh), Baghdad (Iraq), and other places. What happened on 15 July in Turkey is of a different nature" and makes the decision to cancel "the only wise one available."
The next COSPAR scientific assembly is scheduled for July 14-22, 2018 in Pasadena, CA, the home of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which manages many of NASA's space and earth science missions.
The State Department also has a travel advisory in effect for Mexico, including the state of Jalisco where Guadalajara -- the site of the September International Astronautical Conference (IAC) -- is located. When asked today whether NASA has any plans or expectations that travel will be prohibited to the IAC, NASA Associate Administrator for Communications David Weaver replied by email that "NASA fully intends to support this conference, but will continue to coordinate our presence in Mexico with the Department of State."
Updated to include the information that the State Department's advisory about Turkey in effect at the time of Administrator Bolden's decision, issued March 29, limited official travel to "mission critical" travel. It is interesting to note, however, that on June 27 (the day before the attack at the Istanbul airport), the State Department replaced its March 29 advisory with one that did not include the mission critical language and continued to focus on threats in southeastern Turkey. The latest advisory, following the coup attempt, referencing the airline restrictions, was issued July 16 and also omits the mission critical language.
Updated to add David Weaver's comments about the September IAC.
SpaceX launched its Commercial Resupply Services-9 (CRS-9) cargo mission to the International Space Station at 12:45 am ET this morning on schedule from launch pad 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL. The first stage of the Falcon 9 rocket then returned to a successful landing back at a different CCAFS pad about 9 minutes later. It was the second successful SpaceX landing at CCAFS.
SpaceX CRS-9, or SpX-9, is delivering a Dragon spacecraft with 4,976 pounds (2,257 kilograms) of scientific experiments, supplies and equipment to the ISS. Dragon is scheduled to arrive at ISS on Wednesday morning.
Among the items aboard is an International Docking Adapter (IDA) that will be installed on an ISS port to enable dockings of SpaceX's Crew Dragon and Boeing's CST-100 Starliner commercial crew vehicles in the future. The cargo version of Dragon and Orbital ATK's Cygnus cargo spacecraft berth, rather than dock, with the ISS. Berthing requires the ISS crew to grapple the spacecraft with the robotic Canadarm2 and install them onto ISS ports. The crew capsules need to be able to dock using their own propulsion and other systems without interaction from the ISS crew. The IDAs help enable that.
This is IDA-2. IDA-1 was destroyed on the SpX-7 failure in June 2015. A replacement, IDA-3, is being built and is tentatively scheduled for launch on the SpX-14 mission.
The IDA weighs 1,030 pounds (467 kg). The other cargo is 2,050 pounds (930 kg) of science experiments, 816 pounds (370 kg) of crew supplies, 617 pounds (280 kg) of vehicle hardware, 280 pounds (127 kg) of spacewalk equipment, 2.2 pounds (1 kg) of computer resources, and 119 pounds (54 lg) of Russian hardware.
After propelling Dragon and the Falcon 9's second stage part of the way to orbit, the first stage turned around, fired boostback, entry, and landing burns, and successfully touched down back at CCAFS about 9 minutes after liftoff.
SpX-9 Falcon 9 first stage moments before touchdown at Landing Zone 1, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL.
This was only the second landing on land for SpaceX. Other first stages have landed on drone ships at sea. During a briefing on July 16, SpaceX's Hans Koenigsmann said that it is easier to land on terra firma because the pad is larger and is not moving. On the other hand, returning back to the Florida coast requires more fuel. These landings are secondary objectives -- the primary purpose is launching something into orbit -- and use whatever fuel remains. Clearly there was enough today. SpaceX wants to reuse the first stages to reduce launch costs. Several of the stages have been recovered so far. Koenigsmann said the one from the SpX-8 mission will be the first to refly, probably this fall, although the company has not finalized arrangements with a customer for that launch.
Dragon will remain at the ISS until August 29. It then will return to Earth, landing in the Pacific Ocean. It is the only one of the four ISS cargo spacecraft (Orbital ATK's Cygnus, Russia's Progress, and Japan's HTV are the others) that can survive reentry. In this case, it will return more than 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of science experiments and hardware.
Here is our list of space policy events for the week of July 17-22, 2016 and any insight we can offer about them. The House and Senate are in recess until September 6.
During the Week
The week starts off with a bang -- of rocket engines firing -- to launch the SpaceX CRS-9 cargo mission to the International Space Station at 12:45 am Monday. Today (Sunday), NASA will hold a briefing on what's aboard the cargo ship at 3:00 pm ET and coverage of the launch begins at 11:30 pm ET. Watch both on NASA TV.
SpaceX plans to land the Falcon 9 first stage back on a pad at Cape Canaveral a few miles from the launch site. That feat has been done only once before. The other landings were on drone ships out at sea. The landing burn begins 7 minutes 38 seconds after liftoff (following boostback and entry burns), with landing shortly thereafter.
The bang of a gavel will occur later in the day as the Republicans kick off their presidential convention in Cleveland. The GOP has released its list of speakers, but it is just a list, not an agenda showing when each will speak. Perhaps of special interest to readers of this website is that former NASA space shuttle commander Eileen Collins is one of the speakers. If we learn the day and time, we will post it on our Events of Interest list.
Back-to-back conferences at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California this week will bring together experts interested in the scientific, robotic and human exploration of Phobos and Deimos, the two moons of Mars (Monday-Tuesday), and then a broader group looking at human exploration of those celestial bodies as well as the Moon, Mars, and near-earth asteroids (Wednesday-Friday). Neither conference website mentions whether webcasts will be available, but such information often is made available only at the last minute.
The 40th anniversary of the landing of NASA's Viking 1 spacecraft on Mars is on Wednesday, July 20. NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia will celebrate with a history panel on July 19 and a day-long symposium on July 20. NASA TV will broadcast some of the sessions.
July 20 is also the 47th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon. The Space Transportation Association (STA) and the Coalition for Deep Space Exploration will hold a meeting that afternoon where Orbital ATK's Charlie Precourt (a former astronaut) will talk about progress in developing the Space Launch System (SLS). Orbital ATK is building the solid rocket boosters for SLS and recently completed a successful test firing.
The National Academies' Space Technology Industry, Government, University Roundtable (STIGUR) will meet at the National Academy of Sciences building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC on Thursday. The agenda is not posted yet.
Those and other events we know about as of Sunday morning are shown below. Check back throughout the week for additions to our Events of Interest list.
Sunday, July 17
Sunday-Monday, July 17-18
Monday-Thursday, July 18-21
Tuesday-Wednesday, July 19-20
Wednesday, July 20
Wednesday-Thursday, July 20-21
Wednesday-Friday, July 20-22
Thursday, July 21
A celebration of life service for family, friends and colleagues of Molly Macauley is planned for July 23, 2016 in Baltimore, MD. Macauley, a highly respected member of the space policy community, was murdered on July 8 while walking her dogs near her home in Baltimore.
The Christian Science Service in the Celebration of Life will be held at 11:00 am ET on July 23 at the Second Presbyterian Church, 4200 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD, 21218. Internment will be private. More information is on the website of the Mitchell-Wiedefeld funeral home and in a Baltimore Sun obituary published on July 20.
Macauley was one of the few economists who specialized in satellites and the space program. She spent most of her career at Resources for the Future (RFF), a Washington-based think tank focused on environmental issues. RFF is planning a memorial service in September.
Baltimore homicide detectives continue their investigation into the murder, but no suspects or motive have been identified yet. Macauley is survived by her life partner, Lee Lasky, her uncle, Robert Macauley of Carlisle, MA, many cousins and many, many friends.
Update: This article was updated July 17 to clarify the service is for Molly's family, friends, and colleagues. The exact text from the funeral home's website is:
"Family, colleagues and friends are warmly invited to attend a Christian Science Service in the Celebration of Life on Saturday, July 23, 2016 at the Second Presbyterian Church, 4200 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21218. A reception will follow. For more information, contact Susan Macfarlane at 410-366-2851. Interment private. Please omit flowers. Memorial contributions may be made in Molley’s name to BARCS, 301 Stockholm Street, Baltimore, MD 21230 or the Maryland SPCA, 3300 Falls Road, Baltimore, MD 21211."
Update 2: The link to the Baltimore Sun obituary with information about the celebration of life service was added on July 20.
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